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Christopher Drew

AS+GG’s Director of Sustainability, Christopher Drew, is a major contributor to all of AS+GG’s projects in terms of their energy efficiency, energy generation, reduction of carbon emissions, waste management, water conservation, selection of sustainable materials, and other key performance indicators.

As an ecologist, Chris brings a unique perspective on the interaction between humans and their habitat (the built environment and the nat¬ural environment). With a passion for conservation and environmental management, Chris applies pragmatism and scientific rigor to not just minimize the impact of projects but to positively improve the environ¬ments within which they exist.

Prior to joining AS+GG in 2009, Chris was the Department Manager for Sustainability at Masdar City, a zero-waste, carbon-neutral development near Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. He helped develop all aspects of Masdar City’s sustainability strategy, sustainability manage¬ment systems and key performance indicators for design, construction, and operation. In addition, he was responsible for Masdar’s environmen¬tal permitting and management as well as all aspects of the city’s waste management strategy.

A native of United Kingdom, Chris holds a doctorate in ecology from the University of Stirling and a Bachelor of Science in zoology from the University of Liverpool. He has worked in the United Arab Emirates, the Sultanate of Oman, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and the United Kingdom.


PhD., University of Stirling, United Kingdom, 2005
Bachelor of Science, University of Liverpool, UK, 1996


The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM)
Hong Kong Building Environmental assessment Method Professional (HK-BEAM)
Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method International (BREEAM)
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
Carbon Leadership Forum, Board Member
AIA 2030 Challenge

Presentations + Publications

Presentation: “Addressing Urbanization and Major Environmental And Social Issues: Proposing a Potential Solution to Cities with a High Population Density,” 3rd Annual Vertical Cities Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, March 10, 2014
Presentation: “A new Model for sustainable urbanism in China,” American Society for Landscape Architects, September 2013
Presentation: “Beyond Buildings,” China Low Carbon Forum, Shenzhen, China, June 2013
Presentation: “Beyond Buildings,” TEDxIIT, Chicago, Illinois, April 13, 2013
Panel: “The Evolution of Performance,” 2nd Annual Hospitality Design Furniture Luxurious Projects Asia Summit,” Singapore, March 11, 2013
Presentation: “Sustainable High-density Developments,” 2nd Annual Vertical Cities Conference, Seoul, Korea, March 6, 2013
Presentation; “The Density Study,” Chinachem – Sustainable Development: A Better Quality of Life, Hong Kong, November 2012
Panel: “Won’t you Be My Neighbor? Connecting Airports and Communities,” Airports Going Green Conference, November 6, 2012
Presentation: “A Sustainable Solution for Urbanization in China,” CTBUH Congress, Shanghai, China, September 21, 2012
Presentation: “Understanding And Using Climate Data For Performative Passive Design,” 2nd NSF Workshop on Architecture and Engineering of Sustainable Buildings, Chicago, Illinois, July 2012
Presentation: “100,000 People per km2: A Case Study from Chengdu, China,” 1st Annual Vertical Cities Conference, Hong Kong, March 12, 2012
Presentation: “10 People Per SM; A Case Study from Chengdu,” China, ESRI Geodesign Summit, California, January 2012
Presentation: “Smart Buildings Meet Smart Infrastructure,” Philippines Green Building Council Conference, Makati September 2011
Panel: “Sustainability and the Challenges Faced at a City Scale,” SIX and the City, Singapore, September 2010
Panel: “Innovate to Survive,” Institute of Civil Engineers, London, June 2010
Publication: Drew, C. (2005) The desert hare. In Natural Emirates. P. Hellyer & S. Aspinall (eds.) Trident Publishing, Newbury, UK
Publication: Drew, C. (2004) The mammals of Jebel Hafeet. In Jebel Hafeet a Natural History. S. Aspinall. (ed.). ADCO Publications, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Publication: Drew, C. and De Soyza, A. (2002) The Mammals of Abu Al Abyad. In The Island of Abu Al Abyad. R.Perry (ed.) ERWDA, Abu Dhabi UAE
Publication: Drew, C. (2001) Assessing the impacts of coastal infrastructure developments on saltmarshes and mangroves within the coastal zone of Abu Dhabi Emirate using Landsat-TM satellite imagery. Proceedings of the second International symposium and workshop on Arid Zone Environments, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Publication: Murdoch, J., C. Drew, C. Tourenq, and I. Barcelo Llanes.(2007) Ruppell's fox in Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates. Canid News 10:1-6.
Publication: Drew, C. (2000) An assessment of the distribution of desert hares (Lepus capensis) in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. Zoology in the Middle East. 2, 39-46


Crain's Leaders in Sustainability, 2022
AIA Tap/CCA Innovation Awards, Stellar Design, Astana Expo City, 2016
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Urban Planning, Astana Expo City, 2016
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Urban Planning, Lincoln Park Sustainability Roadmap, 2016
Re-thinking The Future 2015 Award, Urban Design Concept, First Award, Great City Chengdu, 2015
Re-thinking The Future 2015 Award, Urban Design Concept, Second Award, Astana Expo City, 2015
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Urban Planning, Tianfu New District Master Plan, 2015
WAN Urban Design Award, Future Projects, Finalist, Xixian Great City Master Plan, 2014
Middle East AIA, Non-Built Category, Merit Award, Kingdom Tower, 2014
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Urban Planning, Xixian Great City Master Plan, 2014
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Urban Planning, Great City Chengdu Master Plan, 2014
The Chicago Athenaeum, Green Good Design Award, Green Research /Technology, the Density Study: A Carbon Analysis of Residential Typologies, 2014
Illinois AIA, Daniel Burnham Honor Award, Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan, 2013
The Chicago Athenaeum, American Architecture Award, Xixian Great City, 2013
Chicago AIA, Design Excellence, SustainABILITY Award, Chicago Central Area Decarbonization Plan, 2012
National AIA, Honor Award, Urban and Regional Design, Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan, 2011
WAN Awards, Urban Design, Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan, 2010
Arabian Property Award for Architecture, Mideast Region, International Property Awards, Masdar Headquarters, 2010
R+D Award for Sustainability, Chicago DeCarbonization Plan, Architect Magazine, 2010

Major projects at Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture:

Uptown Dubai District
190,000 sm 72-story mixed-use tower includes office, residential, and hotel functions. The retail podium includes spaces for vehicle parking, MEP rooms, back of house spaces, a ballroom, and conference rooms, as well as separate entrances for the tower’s functions. Dubai, United Arab Emirates

830 Brickell
Now under construction, 830 Brickell is the first new office tower to launch in Miami in nearly a decade. The soaring 57-story, 724-foot-tall tower introduces a premium commercial to the city’s booming financial district and seeks to reinvent the workplace lifestyle for the highest-caliber of global workforce. Miami, Florida

Freed Hotel and Residences
Mixed-use tower features 100 five-star luxury hotel rooms and 400 luxury condominiums with a world class Skybar and restaurant on the 63rd floor, boutique spa, and a 10,000 sq ft Katsuya Restaurant on the 2nd floor. Toronto, Ontario

The Canopy at Midtown Connector Park
200,00-sf outdoor venue designed to be flexible to support a variety of activities and audiences. The form’s biophilic attributes are blended with cutting-edge technology to be both beautiful and highly intelligent. The project’s main feature is a light-responsive canopy that covers the park-like lawn below during daylight hours and transforms into an LED projection experience at night. Atlanta, Georgia

Cherrywood Area Lands Master Plan Vision
The master plan creates a  sustainable and resilient community that integrates leading advances in master planning, urban design, climate change mitigation, and environmental stewardship to help address the pressing growth needs impacting the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) by delivering a minimum of 25,000 units of housing. Toronto, Ontario

Forbes International Tower
New mixed-use office tower in the heart of Cairo’s rising New Administrative Capital was designed to achieve LEED Platinum certification. The curvilinear design of glass and steel will rise 43 floors and feature two stories of high-end retail spaces. Cairo, Egypt

Al Wasl Plaza
Centerpiece for Expo2020 combines breathtaking design, innovative technology, and an intricate domed trellis incorporating a huge immersive projection experience. Since the Expo's close in 2022, the surrounding 10-13 story buildings have been converted into hotels and other commercial uses, complementing the entire mixed-use legacy of the site. Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Expo 2020 Dubai
Expo 2020’s theme, Connecting Minds, Creating the Future, seeks to inspire ideas and partnerships that will forge the world of tomorrow. AS+GG’s master plan of the post-expo site draws from the same theme to create three separate districts including a mixed use, highly amenitized live-work clusters of corporate, SME, startup, and educational enterprises. Dubai, United Arab Emirates

North Branch Industrial Corridor Design Guidelines
Design guidelines written to act as an appendix to the North Branch Industrial Corridor Framework Plan and identify a range of urban design recommendations to inform public and private sector coordination of development. Chicago, Illinois

Kingston Leadership Plaza
Designed as an open and inviting space to house the new police headquarters for approximately 2,000 police officers and administrative personnel. The plaza program provides community outreach facilities including a sports complex, community center, and outdoor areas for recreation. The various spaces can also be used for festivals and other community gatherings such as lectures, athletics, and educational programs, increasing the community’s comfortability with the police campus. Kingston, Jamaica

Lakeview Village
AS+GG consulted with Lakeview Community Partners Limited to evaluate the feasibility of a draft comprehensive development plan for property located in southeast Mississauga on the shores of Lake Ontario. Mississauga, Ontario

Golden Leaf Gardens
Highly sustainable mixed-use complex sets a new standard for buildings in Shanghai. The project manages 100% of rainwater on site, supporting a robust approach to resiliency. The buildings are designed to be certified LEED Platinum under the USGBC’s LEED rating scheme for core and shell. Shanghai, China

North Branch Industrial Corridor Design Guidelines
Design guidelines written to act as an appendix to the North Branch Industrial Corridor Framework Plan and identify a range of urban design recommendations to inform public and private sector coordination of development. Chicago, Illinois

South Bend Renaissance District
New campus design of a former 92,903 sm Studebaker manufacturing facility, located in the Renaissance District of South Bend. Redevelopment will provide a platform for data and technology companies. South Bend, Indiana

Shenzhen-Hong Kong International Center (Shimao Tower)
New tower at the center of AS+GG’s Shimao Shenzhen Longgang Master Plan is the main focal point for the development’s office and apartment buildings. At approximately 700 meters in height, the tower will be a visual, sound, and light show, reinforcing the district’s athletic and entertainment functions. The tower’s top has one of the world’s highest observation experiences and additional club facilities that include a restaurant, a night club, spa services, and a grand swimming pool, all with views of the city. Shenzhen, China

Wuhan Erqi Qiaotou District Master Plan
Development plan for the 92-hectare Hankou Riverfront Erqi Business District, located between the First and Second Ring Roads, fronting the Yangtze River. Goals included expanding opportunities for office, residential, and complementary uses, as well as increasing green space, balancing biodiversity, and reducing energy demand and carbon emissions. Wuhan, China

Golden Horn Shipyard Master Plan
Master plan for mixed-use district within the shipyard grounds that seeks to retain and celebrate legacy elements of its historic operations. The land area of the district totals 31 hectares with 2 km of water frontage. A visionary master plan is to establish a new urban district with a public waterfront focus and a welcoming place for residents and travelers in the heart of the city. Istanbul, Turkey

Istanbul Cultural Center
Master planning and conceptual design for integrated group of cultural buildings including state-of-the-art opera house, concert hall, theatre, and cinema. Istanbul, Turkey

Pacific Park Master Plan
The master plan seeks to improve the borough by reconnecting neighborhoods that have long been divided by the LIRR corridor via a dynamic, mixed-use environment with high-quality housing, green space, retail, and entertainment attractions. Brooklyn, New York

Sanya Haitang Bay Resort
The luxurious development will consist of two separate hotels, luxury villas and a condo hotel tower, set within a sustainable master plan. Hainan Island, China

Akhmat Tower
400 m new tower shares a geometric relationship to the traditional watch tower in its architectural proportion, the use of a 4-sided pyramidal shape, and the monumental top. Grozny, Russia

Suzhou Keyne Centre
Architectural and interior design for a 287,000 sm mixed-use project with an office and hotel tower and a service apartment tower connected by a 5-story podium with retail and parking. Suzhou, China

Master Planning and Architecture for 174 hectare international exposition site features exhibition and cultural pavilions (118,620 sm); a residential development (686,000 sm); service areas including shopping, socio-cultural, educational and civic facilities; and site-wide parks (72,000 sm). Astana, Kazakhstan

Lincoln Park Sustainability Roadmap
We envision a Lincoln Park community that is a Chicago leader in neighborhood-based sustainability: a community that provides a safe and healthy quality of life for residents, visitors and business owners. We envision a neighborhood where our children can walk and bike safely to school and to playgrounds; a neighborhood where business owners feel their investment in the community will be returned. Chicago, Illinois

Hilal Tower
138 m mixed-use tower includes four levels below grade for retail, parking and support areas. The tower features residential, office and retail at ground and higher levels. Sustainable elements include district cooling, solar hot water, energy-efficient lighting and equipment, a greywater system and highly efficient MEP systems. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Mixed-use 74.5 m and 105 m residential and office towers consisting of 5,612 sm of area. The program includes four to five below-grade levels for partial storage, parking and support areas.  Sustainable elements include district cooling, solar hot water, energy-efficient lighting and equipment, a greywater system and highly efficient MEP systems. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Tianfu New District Master Plan
Master planning and  urban design for new city located approximately 30 kilometers south of Chengdu. The city layout considers the unique features in the landscape such as existing valleys, ridges and slopes and reinterprets them as parks, plazas, pedestrian streets and retail corridors. Chengdu, China

Xixian Great City
A 1.4 square km development in China that represents a shift in the approach to providing high density housing and employment in suburban China. The city is designed around a number of key sustainability criteria focusing on a sustainable and healthy urban environment while at the same time being affordable. Xian, China

Great City Chengdu
1 square-kilometer development in central China, stemming from an investigation into the relationship between high density urban living and sustainable development. Will accommodate a population of 100,000 people, or 30,000 families. Chengdu, China

York University Central Square
Master plan for the Central Square, one of the primary gathering points on the York campus. Involves master plan, design, renovation and energy efficiency strategies for Central Square and surrounding buildings, including Scott Library, Ross Building, Curtis Lecture Halls and Scott Religious Center. Plan will create a vibrant hub that can be utilized year-round and set the standard for future development.  Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Chicago Department of Aviation
Assisted in the development of a Sustainable Roadmap that would transform O’Hare International and Midway Airports into the most sustainable facilities of their kind. Building on experience in developing sustainability master plans, AS+GG guided the CDA’s prioritization and consolidation of existing programs to formulate a synergistic sustainability plan for the Chicago Department of Aviation.' Chicago, Illinois

AS+GG Density Study
An internal research project which looked at the key sustainability aspects of building typologies ranging from suburban single family homes through 750 m supertall towers. To ensure comparability all community prototypes were designed in house for 2000 units with differing total building number, one supertall tower with 2000 units versus 2000 suburban homes. The study analyzed the prototypes in terms of land use, energy demand, transportation, and life cycle carbon emissions. Chicago, Illinois

Jeddah Tower
The next tallest building in the world, this multi-use Tower will feature a luxury hotel, office space, serviced apartments, luxury condominiums and the world’s highest observatory. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan
Commission from the City of Chicago for a complete "Energy Master Plan" that assesses and looks at innovative solutions for the carbon performance of the downtown area Loop using a holistic urban design approach. Chicago, Illinois

Willis Tower Greening Project + Hotel (Formerly Sears Tower)
Integration of sustainable systems to reduce energy consumption at the former Sears tower and design for highly sustainable, 50-story five-star hotel to be built on the south side of Willis Tower plaza. The hotel will draw net zero energy from the power grid. Chicago, Illinois

Masdar Headquarters Development
Positive Energy building (generating more energy than it consumes) in zero-carbon, zero-waste city outside of Abu Dhabi. Project includes office and residential space, retail, transit circulation and incorporates landscaped green space. Masdar City at Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates


Projects prior to joining AS+GG:

Masdar, Department Manager  Sustainability
(December 2007 – October 2009) Sustainability Management including strategy and planning, setting targets and KPIs, developing a sustainability management system and reporting greenhouse gas emissions, integration of renewable energy generation with other utilities (solid waste, wastewater, potable water, transportation and ICT), waste management and environmental management.

Abu Dhabi International Airport Expansion Programme, Environmental Manager
(May 2005 – December 2007) Environmental Manager at the ADIA expansion programme: construction environmental management, aspects of environmental design (sustainability and compliance) as well as aspects of operational environmental management (noise modelling, emissions modelling). Also, interfacing with designers and stakeholders to ensure sustainable design measures were incorporated, SCADIA’ s and ADAC‘s sustainable design framework and preparation of documentation in support of engaging the UK Building Research Establishment to undertake a BREEAM assessment of the Midfield Terminal Complex.

Parsons International ltd., Environmental Manager
(2005-2006) Held meetings with stakeholders, undertook preliminary site surveys, prepared prequalification documentation for environmental consultants and prepared the RFP for environmental consulting services. Was also involved with the Business development team in preparing an overall costing for programme management of the Airport Design. Supported successful design bid package, providing scope of work for environmental services (with regards design and construction).

Freelance Environmental consultant
(2002 – 2006) Provided environmental consulting support on numerous projects, mainly associated with the Oil and Gas industry.

Baseline Ecological Assessment
(2006) Environmental scientist and ecologist for baseline assessment of BG concession area in the Empty quarter of Oman. The study was carried out during November of 2006 and was submitted by BG to Petroleum Development Organisation of Oman as part of their exploration and mitigation strategy. Rub Al Khali, Oman

Environment Agency Abu Dhabi
(1996 – 2005) Recruited to work for terrestrial ecology research centre and undertook numerous surveys in support of environmental programmes, protected areas programmes and private initiatives for the ruling family of Abu Dhabi

Issyk-Kul Lake Highway Improvement
(Kyrgyz Govt. 2006) Provided advice on the requirements for undertaking an Equator principle / WB standard EIA. Carried out a rapid site assessment at the request of a local environmental consultancy. Kyrgyzstan

Sangachal Terminal
(BP, 2006) Prepared a protocol and methodology for the assessment of success of a combined waste management plan and habitat improvement programme. The study used native rodent species as indicators and utilized distance sampling as a statistical measuring tool. Azerbaijan

Sangachal Terminal Wetlands Study
(URS, 2002) Survey team leader for a multidisciplinary assessment of the semi-natural wetland outside of the BP Sangachal oil terminal in Azerbaijan. The study was carried out during the autumn of 2002 and completed in early 2003. The purpose of the study was to characterise and assess the ecological significance of the wetland and to establish baseline values for biotic and abiotic parameters against which future change (as a result of development or other stochastic factors) could be measured. Azerbaijan

(ADIAS, 2002) Surveying project manager for a post-seismic survey Environmental Impact Assessment carried out on behalf of Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Service (ADIAS) for Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) during June 2002. The contract was for a survey of fauna, flora and natural environments in a mobile sand dune environment. The purpose was to assess whether there was any impact from a seismic survey that had been carried out over the past two and a half years and to make recommendations for the restoration of habitat damaged by associated earth moving and infrastructure construction. United Arab Emirates

Chris Drew on . . .

. . . design
When it comes to design, I don't have to get pens and paper out. This is fortunate, as my artistic abilities are, well, let's just say limited. However, what I really like to do is sketch out schematic process flows and see how they can be integrated into the design so that sustainable best practices are included from the outset, rather than as some sort of added extra that goes in once people start reading through a building assessment checklist. The early stages of design are the most important when it comes to sustainability; that's where all the passive design measures such as building orientation, shape, location are all decided. These are the measures that, at least in terms of energy savings (and to an extent indoor environmental quality) have the greatest effect for the lowest cost.

. . . construction
As far as I'm concerned, the days when architects designed buildings and handed a bunch of design drawings over to a builder, who then put it altogether with pretty minimal input from the designer, are well and truly dead and buried. My philosophy is that sustainability starts at the earliest design stage, goes through construction and into operation. If I'm involved in designing a sustainable building and putting my name to it, I want to make sure that I have as much influence over all the stages as possible. As building designs bring about further reductions in energy and water consumption, actual construction processes and the materials used have an even greater impact. If I can work with contractors to specify materials, reduce waste generation and discuss with them techniques to improve sustainability during the construction process, then the environmental impact (and the cost) of the built environment can be reduced.

. . . where he gets his inspiration
I grew up with my brother on a smallholding, or small farm, where my parents did as much as they could to be self-sufficient. While they were at work, my granddad, who was without question the most practical person to have ever lived, would show us how to fix things, often using materials that had once served other purposes. I think I take my inspiration from the people who were around me during my childhood.

More recently, I've met or worked with some of the most creative thinkers in regards to sustainability, this experience has taught me firstly the importance of some of the things I studied at university. My PhD. is in desert wildlife ecology—not, you might think, the most relevant subject in regards to building design. However, understanding our part in the ecosystems we inhabit is actually completely relevant. Most of the adaptations of wildlife to their environments are directly applicable to buildings. Desert oryx, or antelope, have high thermal mass to help them keep cool; the ears of desert hares radiate heat to keep cool. Some animals can reduce the blood supply parts of their body when it gets too hot or too cold. In the end, these plants and animals are the ultimate energy and water conservers. If we can't learn from them, it's because we are not thinking laterally enough. It's not just about biomimicry; it's more about natural systems mimicry.

The second thing I learned was the 1 + 1 =3 approach. This is really the key to achieving economic sustainability; integrating two systems almost inevitably gives an extra benefit. We've seen that with co-generation and tri-generation, so we should always look out for integration opportunities.

. . . my favorite moment in architecture
I don't know that I've had a favourite moment. Certainly I've had satisfying moments. One of those was having most of the major wood suppliers in the United Arab Emirates come to a meeting that we organized with the Forest Stewardship Council to encourage them to become certified so that we could specify locally purchased sustainable timber, and a couple of weeks later being able to do so because enough of them had committed to becoming certified. Seeing concrete waste from the project being crushed and used in high value applications, seeing wood waste being shredded, dyed and used for ground improvement—all of it saving money and reducing the environmental impact—was extremely satisfying. Being able to walk around inside a building in summer in the UAE that was not air conditioned but was just well designed—that was a good moment.

. . . his favorite examples of sustainability
There aren't really that many examples of true sustainability out there, at least not on a large, designed scale. I really want to be involved in reducing life-cycle carbon dioxide emissions of buildings in a way that isn't just operational emissions (typically saving energy) but also the embodied carbon and the emissions associated with maintenance. All too often the focus is on saving energy at almost any cost, even when, if the energy source is renewable such as wind, hydro or solar, it has only a marginal impact on CO2 emissions. In these cases, saving water and using highly durable low-embodied-carbon materials would have a much greater impact. I'm impressed by buildings in which life-cycle carbon emission reductions have been made and a life-cycle cost estimate has shown a positive financial argument for doing it. I think the one-planet living communities have done pioneering work in this regard. And with the BRE Environmental Assessment Method driving designers to consider embodied carbon, we're going to see some great stuff coming out in the next few years.

. . . his favorite thing about a collaborative design process
Other people have said the same thing and I completely agree: it's the people in the team. I've worked with teams where the contractors have been completely disinterested in sustainability at the outset of a project and, a few weeks later, are fully on board and coming up with innovative solutions of their own. Seeing people being totally committed to something that they either didn't know about or didn't understand a few weeks earlier is one of the most satisfying things.

. . . what he'd be if he wasn't a sustainability manager
I'm interested in so many things, but probably I'd be a conservation biologist.

. . . what he does when he's not working
I enjoy playing and watching sport and being outdoors, especially with my wife and children. I also read a lot and think about sustainability—plotting and scheming about how things can be done better. It's almost impossible to not think about it. I go to a shop where the escalator runs when there's no one on it, I go to a restaurant where the AC is working flat-out just to offset the heat from the lighting, I get in a taxi with a 4-litre engine . . . and so on. Examples of us squandering energy, water and fuel, and producing too much waste, are absolutely everywhere. Once your eyes are open to it, it's almost impossible to close them.